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Migrations

Software maintenance is a hard task, and you'll probably need to patch your database to add, modify or remove some fields. The way to handle that with Pop is to use migrations.

You can create new migrations using fizz, a custom language describing the database changes in the most database-agnostic way; or use SQL statements if you prefer.

Writing Migrations

Note for Buffalo users: soda commands are embedded into the buffalo command, behind the db namespace. So everytime you want to use a command from soda, just execute buffalo db instead.

Fizz Migrations

The soda command will generate SQL migrations (both the up and down) files for you.

$ soda generate fizz name_of_migration

Running this command will generate the empty following files:

./migrations/20160815134952_name_of_migration.up.fizz
./migrations/20160815134952_name_of_migration.down.fizz

The generated files are fizz files. Pop uses Fizz to generate migrations that are both easy to work with and work across multiple types of databases.

Further info about this command can be found by using the --help flag:

$ soda g migration --help

Generates Up/Down migrations for your database using fizz.

Usage:
  soda generate fizz [name] [flags]

Aliases:
  fizz, migration

Flags:
  -h, --help   help for fizz

Global Flags:
  -c, --config string   The configuration file you would like to use.
  -d, --debug           Use debug/verbose mode
  -e, --env string      The environment you want to run migrations against. Will use $GO_ENV if set. (default "development")
  -p, --path string     Path to the migrations folder (default "./migrations")

By default, the migration will create an UUID id that serves as the primary key, as well as created_at and updated_at datetime columns, so there is no need to create your own. These are the default, but you can override them if you want.

SQL Migrations

If you don't want to use Fizz, or you have a complicated query you want to execute, you can use SQL.

To generate a new empty migration, use the following command:

$ soda generate sql name_of_migration

Running this command will generate the following files:

./migrations/20160815134952_name_of_migration.up.sql
./migrations/20160815134952_name_of_migration.down.sql

Further info about this command can be found by using the --help flag:

$ soda g sql --help

Generates Up/Down migrations for your database using SQL.

Usage:
  soda generate sql [name] [flags]

Flags:
  -h, --help   help for sql

Global Flags:
  -c, --config string   The configuration file you would like to use.
  -d, --debug           Use debug/verbose mode
  -e, --env string      The environment you want to run migrations against. Will use $GO_ENV if set. (default "development")
  -p, --path string     Path to the migrations folder (default "./migrations")

Running Migrations

Note for Buffalo users: soda commands are embedded into the buffalo command, behind the db namespace. So everytime you want to use a command from soda, just execute buffalo db instead.

Apply Migrations

Once migrations have been created they can be run with either of the following commands:

$ soda migrate
$ soda migrate up

Both commands are identical, one is shorter to type! Migrations will be run in sequential order.

Rollback a Migration

If you want to rollback the last applied migration, use the following command:

$ soda migrate down

More information about the migration command be found by running:

$ soda migrate --help

Runs migrations against your database.

Usage:
  soda migrate [flags]
  soda migrate [command]

Aliases:
  migrate, m

Available Commands:
  down        Apply one or more of the 'down' migrations.
  reset       The equivalent of running `migrate down` and then `migrate up`
  status      Displays the status of all migrations.
  up          Apply all of the 'up' migrations.

Flags:
  -h, --help   help for migrate

Global Flags:
  -c, --config string   The configuration file you would like to use.
  -d, --debug           Use debug/verbose mode
  -e, --env string      The environment you want to run migrations against. Will use $GO_ENV if set. (default "development")
  -p, --path string     Path to the migrations folder (default "./migrations")

Use "soda migrate [command] --help" for more information about a command.

Targeting a Database

Since Pop v4.4.0, migrations can target a specific database, using a suffix. This allows to use commands specific to a dialect, only for a given database.

For instance, if you want to support both PostgreSQL and MySQL, you can create two migrations:

  • my-migration.mysql.up.sql and my-migration.mysql.down.sql will be used when migrating a MySQL database.
  • my-migration.postgres.up.sql and my-migration.postgres.down.sql will be used when migrating a PostgreSQL database.

If no version for the dialect can be found, Pop will fallback to the non-suffixed version, if it exists.

Custom Migrations Table

By default, the applied migrations are tracked in the table schema_migration. This table is created by pop if it doesn't exist.

In some cases, though, you may want to use a different name for this table. Since pop v4.5.0, you can customize the name of this table using the migration_table_name option. The example below will use migrations as the table name:

development:
  dialect: "postgres"
  url: "your_db_development"
  options:
    migration_table_name: migrations

Migrations Once Deployed

This section is only for Buffalo users.

When you build your app, the migrations are stored inside your binary. Your binary has a hidden migrate command baked in that performs the migrations, just like it does when you use buffalo db migrate:

$ ./myapp migrate
DEBU[2018-01-12T06:14:20Z] select count(*) as row_count from (SELECT schema_migration.* FROM schema_migration AS schema_migration WHERE version = ?) a $1=20171213171622
DEBU[2018-01-12T06:14:20Z] select count(*) as row_count from (SELECT schema_migration.* FROM schema_migration AS schema_migration WHERE version = ?) a $1=20171213172104
DEBU[2018-01-12T06:14:20Z] select count(*) as row_count from (SELECT schema_migration.* FROM schema_migration AS schema_migration WHERE version = ?) a $1=20171213172249
DEBU[2018-01-12T06:14:20Z] select count(*) as row_count from (SELECT schema_migration.* FROM schema_migration AS schema_migration WHERE version = ?) a $1=20171213173148
DEBU[2018-01-12T06:14:20Z] select count(*) as row_count from (SELECT schema_migration.* FROM schema_migration AS schema_migration WHERE version = ?) a $1=20171219070903
DEBU[2018-01-12T06:14:20Z] select count(*) as row_count from (SELECT schema_migration.* FROM schema_migration AS schema_migration WHERE version = ?) a $1=20171219071524

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